What is a Forecheck in Hockey? Forechecking Explained

what is a forecheck in hockey?

Hockey is a game of speed, skill, and strategy. One strategy teams use to gain an advantage in a hockey game is the forecheck. But what is forechecking, and how does it impact the game? This post will dive into the art of the forecheck in hockey, exploring its importance and how ice hockey teams use it to control the puck and pressure the opposing team.

Understanding the Basics of Forecheck

The Roles in Forechecking

Offensive Players: Typically, forwards are responsible for forechecking. They use speed and agility to challenge the puck carrier and cut off passing lanes to try to gain control of the puck.

Read More: Can Hockey End In A Tie?

Defensive Team: On the flip side, the defensive team must make quick decisions to exit their zone and transition to offense effectively.

Forechecking Strategies

Aggressive Forecheck

1-2-2 Forecheck:

Often used to put pressure on the puck carrier, forcing turnovers.

2-1-2 Forecheck:

Sends two players deep into the offensive zone, with the third forward supporting in the high slot.

Conservative Forecheck

New Jersey Devils and the Neutral Zone Trap

The New Jersey Devils, particularly during the late 1990s and early 2000s, are one of the most well-known examples of a team that successfully employed conservative forechecking strategies, such as the neutral zone trap. Under the guidance of coach Jacques Lemaire, a proponent of strong defensive play, the Devils perfected these strategies to win several Stanley Cup championships, including in 1995, 2000, and 2003.

The neutral zone trap became synonymous with the Devils’ playing style. This system relies on positioning the players so that the neutral zone becomes congested, leaving the opposing team with limited options for advancing the puck. The strategy is designed to frustrate the opposing team’s offensive efforts, often leading to turnovers that can then be converted into counter-attacking opportunities.

The Devils’ roster, including defensemen like Scott Stevens and Ken Daneyko, and forwards such as John Madden and Jay Pandolfo, was ideally suited for this style of play. They were disciplined, positionally sound, and excelled at reading the play, which are all critical components for the neutral zone trap to be effective.

The 1-3-1 Forecheck System

The New Jersey Devils, especially under the coaching of Jacques Lemaire, were most famously associated with the neutral zone trap, which does share some similarities with the 1-3-1 forecheck in its structure and objectives. However, they were not predominantly known for a strict 1-3-1 forecheck system.

The neutral zone trap that the Devils employed effectively clogged the neutral zone, often with four players aligned in a 1-2-2 or a variation, making it difficult for the opposing team to advance the puck through the center of the ice. This system did not typically extend into the offensive zone in the same way a 1-3-1 system would, with a forward pressuring the puck carrier deep in the offensive zone and the rest of the team setting up between the blue lines.

Instead, the Devils would have a single forward pressuring the puck, with the rest of the team focused on the neutral zone, ready to intercept passes and prevent the opposing team from gaining speed or organizing strong entries into the offensive zone.

In the broader scope of hockey strategy, the 1-3-1 is often mentioned in the context of a team that is setting up in the neutral zone and the offensive zone to apply pressure. However, it’s important to note that the names and specifics of these systems can vary between coaching strategies and eras.

The Devils’ system was so effective and became so central to their identity that any conservative forechecking system employed during that time was often just referred to as the “Devils’ trap,” even though specific strategic alignments like the 1-3-1 may not have been their primary modus operandi.

Outcomes of the Devils’ Conservative Forecheck

By sticking to their conservative forechecking strategy, the Devils were able to dominate in an era that was otherwise marked by the high-flying offense of teams like the Colorado Avalanche and Detroit Red Wings. Their ability to stifle the offensive plays of their opponents through the neutral zone trap and 1-3-1 forecheck was a significant factor in their championship victories.

The effectiveness of the Devils’ system was such that it influenced a change in the rules of the game, with the introduction of measures aimed at increasing offensive play, such as the removal of the two-line offside pass restriction, which directly countered the trap strategy.

In conclusion, the New Jersey Devils of that era provided a masterclass in how a well-executed conservative forecheck, tailored to the strengths of their roster and the philosophy of their coach, could lead to sustained success in the NHL.

Execution of a Successful Forecheck

First Forechecker: The primary forechecker applies immediate pressure to the puck carrier on the offensive team.

Second Player: Supports the first forechecker, often covering the middle of the ice.

Third Player: Remains in a higher position, ready to react to the play’s outcome.

Importance of Communication and Coordination

A successful forechecking system depends on excellent communication skills among hockey players. It’s a coordinated pressuring tactic that requires all members to understand their roles and to react according to the game situation to avoid odd-man rushes from the opposite team. 

The Impact of Forechecking

Forechecking can dictate the pace of the game. An effective forecheck can lead to:

– Regaining puck possession

– Creating scoring opportunities

– Preventing the opposing team from setting up their offense

Adapting to Game Situations in Hockey Forechecking

In the fast-paced and dynamic environment of a hockey game, a team’s ability to adapt its forechecking strategy can be crucial to its success. Forechecking isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach; it’s an ever-evolving tactic that must be tailored to specific game situations. Here’s how a team’s approach to forechecking might change:

Influence of the Game Score

Leading the Game: Teams ahead in score may adopt a less aggressive forecheck to protect their lead, focusing on maintaining puck control and minimizing risk.

Trailing in the Game: Conversely, a team behind on the scoreboard might intensify their forecheck to create more offensive opportunities and force turnovers.

Opponent’s Strategy

Counteracting Speed: If the opposing team is known for fast breakouts, a team might employ a more conservative forecheck, like the 1-3-1, to slow down the game.

Breaking a Defensive Wall: Against a team with strong defensive tactics, an aggressive 2-1-2 forecheck could be used to break through their defenses.

Coach’s Philosophy

Risk vs. Reward: Some coaches prefer a high-risk, high-reward strategy, directing their team to engage in an aggressive forecheck regardless of the game situation.

Measured Approach: Others may opt for a more calculated forecheck, adapting in real-time based on how the game unfolds.

Player Strengths and Weaknesses

Utilizing Speed: A team with fast skaters might use an aggressive forecheck more often, taking advantage of their speed to pressure the opposing team.

Defensive Solidity: Teams with strong defensive players may rely on a conservative forecheck, trusting their defense to regain possession and start the offense.

Special Teams

Power Play Situations: During a power play, the forechecking strategy changes significantly as the focus shifts to maintaining puck possession in the offensive zone.

Penalty Kill: While shorthanded, teams will forecheck minimally, focusing instead on protecting their own net and clearing the puck.

In-Game Adjustments

Reading the Opponent: Teams must read and adapt to the other team’s in-game adjustments. If the opposing team changes its breakout strategy, the forechecking team must adjust to maintain effectiveness.

Fatigue Factors: A coach may switch to a less aggressive forecheck to conserve energy as players tire.

Communication and Execution

On-the-Fly Changes: Players must communicate to execute any changes in the forecheck during the game.

Bench Management: Coaches play a pivotal role making quick decisions and relaying strategies to the players on the bench.

Impact of Forechecking Adaptability

A team’s ability to change its forecheck is not just about strategy but also about the psychological advantage it can bring. Changing forechecking strategy can disrupt the opposing team’s rhythm and create uncertainty, leading to mistakes that can be used to your advantage


Adapting to different game situations is what makes forechecking such an integral part of a hockey team’s playbook. Teams that can successfully shift their forechecking approach in response to the score, opposing strategies, player capabilities, and coaching philosophies often maintain a competitive edge throughout the game and throughout the course of a season. It’s a complex dance of analysis, decision-making, and execution that can turn the tide of a game and is a testament to a team’s tactical flexibility and resilience.

Forechecking is a powerful tool in a team’s arsenal, providing both offensive and defensive benefits. By understanding and employing various forechecking strategies, a team can exert control over the game, keep the opposing team on their heels, and create the offensive plays that lead to scoring chances and, ultimately, victories.

Whether you’re a player looking to improve your forechecking skills or a fan eager to understand the game better, recognizing the role of this tactic can enhance your appreciation for the great game of hockey.

author avatar
Tom Fitzgerald